TO

  • Antispecism: The philosophical movement that opposes speciesism. Speciesism is the attribution of a different value and moral status to individuals solely on the basis of their species of belonging.

B.

  • Biological: A product that has been grown or produced without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

C.

  • Cruelty-Free: A product that is not tested on animals anywhere in the world. You can learn more about the definition by reading this article .

D.

  • Animal derivatives: Ingredients or substances derived directly or indirectly from animals.
  • Flexitarian diet: An omnivorous diet tending towards a vegetarian diet. Defined as "80% vegetarian" and flexible, it consists in eating mainly plant-based and consuming meat, fish, milk and eggs in small quantities, possibly of high quality and local, with a view to being responsible for one's own body and the planet. In this diet, consuming animal products is the exception.
  • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet: A diet that excludes foods that derive from the direct killing of both terrestrial and marine animals, such as meat, fish, molluscs and crustaceans. It accepts any food of plant origin and indirect animal products, i.e. eggs (not fish), milk, dairy products, honey and all other hive products. It is the most common type of vegetarian diet, so much so that in common parlance it is erroneously referred to simply as a vegetarian diet.
  • Lacto-vegetarian diet: It's like the lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet but excludes eggs.
  • Omnivorous diet : A diet that involves the consumption of all food groups, including meat, fish, eggs, milk, its derivatives and beehive products.
  • Pescetarian diet: A diet that allows direct consumption of animals as long as the animals are classified as aquatic invertebrates or fish, coming from fresh or salt water catches. It accepts any food of plant origin and indirect animal products, i.e. eggs (not fish), milk, dairy products, honey and all other hive products.
  • Plant-based (or plant-based) diet: A diet based mainly on the consumption of plant foods: fruit, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts and oil seeds. Following a plant-based diet does not necessarily mean being vegan. It means not consuming - or consuming truly exceptional cases - animal derivatives.
  • Reducer Diet: An omnivorous diet that reduces the amount of meat and animal derivatives consumed during the week. It is similar to the definition of a flexitarian diet, but differs in some respects. To understand, the flexitarian eats meat only if his grandmother cooks it on Sundays or at Christmas dinner, the reducetarian eats it a few times a week, but more often than a flexitarian and less than a classic omnivore in 2021.
  • Seagan diet : A diet that allows direct consumption of animals provided that the animals are classified as aquatic invertebrates or fish, coming from fresh or salt water catches. It excludes all foods of indirect animal origin (milk and derivatives, eggs, honey and other products deriving from animals) and admits any food of plant origin, as well as algae, fungi and bacteria.
  • Vegan diet: A diet that excludes all foods of animal origin (meat, fish, molluscs and crustaceans, milk and derivatives, eggs, honey and other products derived from animals) and allows any food of plant origin, as well as algae, fungi and bacteria. Often the term is also used to indicate plant-based nutrition, even if they are not exactly the same thing.
  • Diet: The word diet, from the Latin diaeta, indicates the set of foods that animals and human beings usually take for their nutrition or the food spectrum. It refers to the set of foods consumed habitually.
  • Ovo-vegetarian diette: It is like the lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet but also excludes milk and dairy products.

IS

  • Ethical: A product made without exploiting people, animals or the environment.

F.

  • Fair-Trade: A product made with respect for workers, without child exploitation and guaranteeing certain conditions.
  • Fast Fashion: A term used to indicate instant fashion, the one that quickly passes from the catwalks to the shelves. These fashion lines are produced quickly and inexpensively, to allow consumers to purchase them at a low price. This strategy is used by large retailers such as H&M, Zara and Primark.
  • Flexitarian: A person on a flexitarian diet.

G.

  • Greenwashing: A marketing strategy used by companies to build an image of themselves that is more environmentally friendly than it actually is. You can learn more about the term by reading this article.

L

  • Vegetarian lacto-ovo: A person who follows a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.
  • Edible yeast: It is a deactivated yeast that is sold as a food product. It is often used in vegan cooking because it vaguely resembles a cheesy flavor.

No.

  • Natural: It is usually used to indicate a product created with mainly natural ingredients. In itself it has no real meaning.

OR

  • Omnivorous: A person who follows an omnivorous diet.

P.

  • Pescetarian: A person who follows a pescetarian diet.
  • Pinkwashing: A term first used by a breast cancer association to identify companies that pretended to support many people with breast cancer, making money from their disease. In a broader sense, it is a marketing strategy used by companies to promote a product or an organization through an apparent open attitude towards women's emancipation.
  • Dairy products: Fresh and aged cheeses.
  • Beehive products: Honey, royal jelly, propolis, pollen and there was bee.
  • Dairy products: Yogurt, cream, ricotta and butter.
  • Dairy products: The set of dairy products and dairy products: yogurt, cream, ricotta, butter, fresh and aged cheeses.

R.

  • Rainbow Washing: A marketing strategy used by companies to approach a brand to LGBT instances, in order to obtain visibility in the eyes of the public and, consequently, increase the sales of a product.

S.

  • Seagan: A person on a Seagan diet.
  • Seitan: A food of vegetable origin rich in proteins that is used instead of meat and obtained from the processing of wheat flour.
  • Slow Fashion: A movement that focuses on the quality and importance of resources and processes for the production of clothing. It produces premium quality items that you buy less frequently that have a longer lifespan. It also makes treating people, animals and the environment a priority. In summary, it is the opposite of fast fashion.
  • Specism: The attribution of a higher status to humans than other animal species. It therefore indicates a prejudice or an attitude that is prejudicial to the interests of members of one's own species and against members of other species, which therefore it is justifiable to give human beings a preference over other species because they are part of the human species. Antispecism contrasts with this approach.
  • Sustainable: A term used to describe materials obtained from responsible sources without having caused an excessive exploitation of the planet's resources.

T.

  • Tempeh: A food obtained through a fermentation process of yellow soybeans. It is often referred to as "soy meat" for its appearance and high protein content. It tastes vaguely reminiscent of mushrooms and nuts.
  • Tofu : A food obtained from the curdling of soy milk and the pressing of the result into blocks with special dedicated tools. There are different types of tofu, the most common are classic tofu (or dry tofu) and velvety tofu (or Silken Tofu).

V.

  • Veganism : It is a movement that excludes, to the extent possible and practicable, all forms of exploitation and cruelty to animals, for food, for clothing, as for any other purpose. In terms of diet, it consists of following a vegan diet.
  • Vegan by mistake (or Accidentally Vegan): A product that is not born as vegan but which is naturally free of animal derivatives. For example, pasta.
  • Vegan: It has two different meanings. Or rather, it is used in two different ways. To indicate a person who follows a vegan diet and / or to indicate a person who has chosen to follow the philosophy of veganism.
  • Veganuary: It is an initiative created in 2014 by Jane Land and Matthew Glover which consists of trying to eat exclusively plant-based for the entire month of January. The entire vegan community gathers to dispense advice, explain motivations, make suggestions, share recipes and important notions to help newcomers eat vegetables for a month.
  • Veganwashing: A term used to refer to the act of using veganism in an attempt to conceal acts of valence or appear more peaceful or compassionate than one actually is.
  • Vegetarian: There are several dietary models of a vegetarian diet. Normally the term vegetarian means a person who follows a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.
  • Vitamin B12: A fundamental vitamin for the synthesis of hemoglobin. It is necessary for the metabolism of nervous tissue, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It is an essential vitamin: it is not produced by the human body but must be introduced with the diet and is absorbed in the first sections of the intestine. Not even animals are able to produce it, in fact they just accumulate it in their tissues. So the animals only act as intermediaries. And who produces it, then? B12 is produced by bacteria. In theory, animals should get B12 naturally by eating plants contaminated by the bacteria that produce it. Today's intensively reared animals do not live long enough to accumulate it properly in their bodies. In addition, they are fed intensively grown vegetables that do not contain sufficient amounts of B12. Consequently, the only way to get him to acquire the vitamin is to add it to the feed. So no, a diet lacking (or poor) of animal products is not incomplete. It just skips one step: it takes vitamin B12 directly from the source rather than using animals as a conduit. I recommend that you take a look at the website of the Scientific Society of Vegetarian Nutrition (or the SSNV) for all necessary information , dosages and indications of professionals.
  • Vitamin D: A fat-soluble vitamin that regulates calcium metabolism and is therefore useful in calcifying bones. It is synthesized above all by our body through the absorption of the sun's rays by the skin. It is scarcely present in any food, so it should often be integrated regardless of the diet one follows. I recommend that you take a look at the website of the Scientific Society of Vegetarian Nutrition (or the SSNV) for all necessary information , dosages and indications of professionals.
    Vittoria Tomassini